However, these are just general hypotheses, that need to be tested and examined in conjunction, Studies that use qualitative methods to study, social representations of climate change are relatively, keyword association exercises to this purpose. Our ability to monitor Earth’s dynamic systems is enabled by collecting measurements and data focused on: oceans, atmosphere, climate, and near-space. sources could be mutually affecting each other. the causes (68% against 42% of EU average), but also about consequences (69% against 42%), and ways to combat climate change (70% against, 46%). The WFD has provided an institutional Research is needed to understand, how consistent change is and whether it is due to more, sustainable practices. Few articles focused on the, national level. However, levels of civic involvement with, environmental NGOs were very low in the early 1990s, and have continued that way. The fact that, Portugal is an economy in transition that saw a rapid, growth in the 1990s and early 2000s may have led, to an increased consumerism and help explain some, of the distribution of responses. Uncertainty: The ability to plan and design adaptation options is limited by uncertainties on physical changes, socio-economic developments, and the costs and benefits of different approaches or time scales. Several lessons for international and European environmental policy are taken from this case study. In one, study, carried out in 2005, participants were asked to, write down the ﬁrst few thoughts that came to mind, about the ‘most important problems’ that humanity, was faced with. Portugal has a temperate maritime climate with hot summers and wet winters, affected by the Atlantic, Continental and Mediterranean influences. Until now, the impact of global warming on this polymorphism has been studied in D. subobscura populations located either on a continental mainland or on islands not far from a continent. 95. Cold wave duration index Thus, we forecasted morphological evolution of six large and medium size estuaries (Guadiana Alcantarilha, Arade, Gilão, Quarteira River, Alvor and a coastal lagoon system (Ria Formosa lagoon) due to the imposed scenarios of MSLR. As greenhouse gas emissions continued to rise beyond its Kyoto target for 2012, the country had to resort to the Kyoto Flexibility Mechanisms in order to comply. This will, amplify the vulnerability to desertiﬁcation that already, affects 36% of the continental territory. Pegion P. On the increased frequency of Mediterranean, indices derived from a daily rainfall database for. At the national, of Portuguese energy policies to the abatement of, on six energy and environmental policy scenarios. Legal debates about the (in)correct transposition of the WFD into Spanish and Portuguese legislation are still unresolved. More and better ties, between science and policy and stronger involvement, of stakeholders are essential to improve mitigation, merged in 1998 with six other national journals of, Development Mechanisms was very low until 2007, when agreements with African countries focusing, on climate change and clean development were, signed. Research included semi-structured interviews with scientists, regulators and community stakeholders involved with the Bay of Quinte RAP, observational research, document analysis and literature review. The country has also become much more active in promoting the global protection of marine environments in particular. In, Portugal, the state tends to be deemed as the main. Though some studies were previously developed for mainland Portugal, the expectable increasing signs of the changes in the values and behavior of some hydrological variables makes it essential: (i) to ensure the soundness of those studies by using the most suitable models applied to time series as long as possible; (ii) to update such studies by continuously incorporating the more recent data. Governmental, policies with a strong emphasis on mitigation were introduced at the end of the, 1990s. (Accessed. The climate projections are already imposing a significant challenge to some countries in Southern Europe, including Portugal, ... Changes in climate became evident in Portugal as early as the end of the nineteenth century, http://www.lasics.uminho.pt/compolis/index.html, The EU research project "Bottom-Up Climate Adaptation Strategies Towards a Sustainable Europe" (BASE) supports action for sustainable climate change adaptation in Europe. Several cities are drawing up plans of action as a response to climate change. Portugal has performed well in the latest Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI). “Portugal had already accelerated its coal phase-coal from 2030 to 2023. More recently, Cabecinhas, et al. 2007, 22:3115–3134. Select an area on climate change which interests you. record in mitigation and adaptation to climate change. BASE makes experiential an, The ClimAdaPT.Local project has the goal of starting in Portugal a continuous process leading to the elaboration of Municipal Strategies for Adaptation to Climate Change (Estratégias Municipais de, This collection of articles delivers the knowledge and insights one needs to understand policymaking at many levels, by reviewing viewpoints in categories: (1) Policy-driven research; (2) Policy communications research; and (3) Critical policy research. In this section, we, refer to various aspects of public understanding of and, engagement with climate change in Portugal, namely, concern, knowledge and views of responsibility, as. 75% considered climate change a very serious problem, asked in 2011 to mention the most serious problem, that the world was facing, only 7% of Portuguese, respondents chose climate change (against 20% of, Europeans). alternatives or the impact of given political options. Integrate bottom-up knowledge with top-down processes through innovative approaches to assess the effectiveness, costs and benefits of adaptation strategies at different scales. It is crucial to identify the, most vulnerable social groups and to involve them in, With regard to public engagement, a series of. Eight of the ten warmest years, warmest since 1941. and ﬁnancial crisis that started in the late 2000s, among others. tuguese Government Programme on climate change. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the establishment of cultures of C. raciborskii that resisted water treatment processes. The last, Portugal with severe droughts in 2004–2005 and, 2011–2012.The year of 2005 was the driest in the, probably signiﬁcant trend in the current century is, the occurrence of extremely wet winters such as, consistent with a tendency of more intense and, frequent extreme weather and climate events, in, particular heat waves, droughts and annual number, of very wet days. We start by reviewing research on climate, change and impacts, adaptation, and mitigation and, then move to an analysis of public policies and, related research. internationally well-known Portuguese climatologists. Rinaudo et al. The book addresses, brieﬂy the problem of climate change induced by, anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Available at: http://www.cnads.pt/index. Modern, scientiﬁc research on meteorology and climatology started in Portugal in the 1950s. Even after mitigation plans, were approved (PNAC and PNALE), most measures, were not put into practice. The relation between levels of knowledge and, levels of concern among Portuguese citizens remains, unaddressed in research. Mediterranean region, including mainland Portugal, of the 21st century, the Mediterranean is expected, to experience the greatest drying among 26 regions, The assessment of vulnerability, impacts and adap-, tation to climate change in Portugal using GCM, scenarios was initiated in 1999 with the project. The SIAM team continued the assessment work, in 2002, this time funded by a grant from the, Portuguese Environmental Programme (supported in, large part by the EU European Regional Development, analysis of the 20th century climate and future, climate scenarios for Portugal, including Azores and, Madeira, as well as the previous integrated and. Potential mitigation actions were only mentioned by, 4% and 1% of participants in the 2005 and 2007, studies, respectively. various ministries (but no civil society representatives), the Inter-ministerial Commission on Climate Change, (CAC—see Table 1 for this and other acronyms) was, responsible for drafting the national strategy for cli-, mate change and for monitoring policy, at the national, and international levels, for leading the decision-, making process, and for implementing policies by, introducing climate change concerns into sectorial, policies. It would be useful to, analyze whether and how alternative discourses can be. Breve biografia de Nuno Lacasta: Nuno Lacasta trabalha em temas ambientais e de desenvolvimento sustentável há cerca de 20 anos, na Europa e … Behavioral change to respond, to climate change is also notably lower than the. WIREs Clim Change doi: 10.1002/wcc.258 In this context, gene flow could be a relevant mechanism allowing the movement of thermally adapted inversions between populations. Thomas Curt, a 54. At the time most atmospheric, scientists felt that any statement about climate change, was premature and engaging in a dialog with policy-, makers and the public on these matters was time, away from doing science. http://siam.fc.ul.pt/cirac/. These initiatives, marked the starting point for the development of. Portugal also saw its rating improve on last year, moving up one position. Looking at those issues, in the context of emerging social movements, like, addition to our understanding of people’s relation to, between the three domains summarized above and, the multiple disciplines that they involve, with, signiﬁcant potential for integrated research. The western Mediterranean. still, it had difﬁculty fulﬁlling this commitment. Case Studies result mainly from a decreasing annual precipitation. followed by international organizations (13%–17%). It will run in 11 EU countries – Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Sweden and the UK. Modern scientific research on meteorology and climatology started in Portugal in the 1950s and a strong community of researchers in climate science, vulnerabilities, impacts, and adaptation has since developed, particularly in the last decade. Impacts of climate change on the terrestrial. average daytime maxima of about 16°C (61°F).However, the Portuguese resorts are much wetter, with only about 14 dry days on average. public policy, managing the Portuguese Carbon Fund, and acting as designated national authority for the, Two years later, the government reviewed some, of the PNAC 2006 targets pertaining to measures and, policies on energy supply and to the increase in the, uptake of biofuels in transport. levels of behavior aimed at reducing GHG emissions. about climate change, followed by newspapers. The Challenge. American Institute of Physics, New York; 1992, 520p. Young activists from Portugal have filed the first climate change case at the European court of human rights in Strasbourg, demanding 33 countries … In: Almeida JF, ed. During winter, Portugal experiences a similar temperature pattern to the Spanish coastal towns, i.e. Step Available at: http://www.siam.fc.ul.pt/. culture, human health, energy, forests, biodiversity, and ﬁsheries. in relation to GHG emissions. The, research effort on the potential physical effects and, economic costs of major extreme weather and climate, events and the major contingent social costs of, such events is very modest. Pereira RMM Is fuel-switching a no-, regrets environmental policy? (Cathy A. The climate also varies according to the … Led jointly by the … Such a transition requires that the interests and needs of workers and their communities be taken into consideration to make sure they do not bear the heaviest part of the burden in terms of loss of jobs and means of survival, and that they are prepared to face the new, post-carbon labour environment. To prepare climate adaptation policy, adaptive planning tools address these uncertainties by assessing different proposed responses. Do our citizens care much about climate change? Camuffo et al. Inter- and, trans-disciplinary work is necessary to understand, the interactions between natural and social processes, and devise responses to the multiple challenges that, Climate change policy development in Portugal, should build more on research at all scales and, domains. doi: 10.2495/DNE-V4-N4-413-422. This resulted more from EU pressure than, from endogenous change. It is estimated that, by2030, the region will have a noticeable increase in the number of days with temperatures above 40°C. Available at: http://epp.eurostat. over Iberia: a comparison between direct GCM. In the Mediterranean states, increasing average temperatures, together with the increasing probability of heatwaves, could result in temperatures exceeding comfortable levels more frequently in the future. Number of hot days per year with maximum temperature above 35, (summer days) for the (a) 1961–1990 climatology; (b) HadRM2. increasing annual mean temperature. There is a signiﬁcant lack of impact assessments, as well as mitigation and adaptation strategies, at the, regional and local scales as only a few Portuguese. Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity must face in the 21st century. Data on coastal geomorphology, land use and protection has been collected by means of Aerial Videotape-Assisted Vulnerability Analysis. EU Climate Policy Explained The EU has been the region of the world where the most climate policies have been implemented, and where practical policy experimentation in the field of the environment and climate change has been taking place at a rapid pace over the last twenty-five years. Portugal Climate Change. knowledge and understanding of causes, impacts, and response options are quite low, clearly below, the European average. In 1990, the European Commission proposed, to the Council a strategy to stabilize greenhouse, gas (GHG) emissions by using a mix of efﬁciency, standards and ﬁscal instruments, and also to promote, research. Cabecinhas et al. Without effective mitigation policies, namely in terms, By failing to comply with targets, Portugal has been. but climate change was not spontaneously evoked, which suggested that the issue had a low salience, for participants. (Special Eurobarometer 88). of the Portuguese coast under different scenarios. 4:273–286. The article also analyses how the conflicts and cooperation between these key actors can shed light on the possibilities and/or limitations of just transition as a framework for the collective action needed to achieve rapid, deep decarbonisation of economies in the Global North context. (2011) have shown a decrease in days with light rain in southern Portugal from 1903 to 2003, with Costa and Soares (2009) identifying an increase in the length of periods with drought and the frequency of droughts in general between 1955 and 1999. As a result, it became one of 43 Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC) identified and supported by the International Joint Commission (IJC) for remediation. In this chapter, we show the main climate characteristics of Portugal, followed by a brief presentation of the main climatic scenarios for the end of the twenty-first century. established in Lisbon in 1854 by Infante D. Luís, brother to King D. Pedro V. Portugal was one of the, founding members of the International Meteorological, Organization created in 1878. doi: 10.1007/s00704-005-0152-1. European average, with lack of money, lack of time, and lack of information being frequent perceived, barriers. The involvement of the Portuguese Institute, of Development Aid (IPAD) in the ENAAC was also a. positive development for cooperation on these issues. Casimiro E, Calheiros JM, Santos FD, Kovats S. National assessment of human health effects of. The most relevant consequences of climate change upon the Portuguese mainland coast are sea level rise and changes in storminess, Most important impacts upon the coast include: increased levels of inundation and displacement of wetlands and lowlands; accelerated coastal erosion; increased storm surge and flooding accompanied by changes of the tidal regime and of the sediment budget. As regards, marine biodiversity the impact of sea-surface warming, on ﬁsh assemblages of the Portuguese continental, coast under various climate scenarios indicates an, increase in the number of species, suggesting that a. commercial opportunity for ﬁsheries may arise. Our aim was to sample and study the chromosomal polymorphism on Madeira, a small isolated island in the Atlantic Ocean. in the areas of land-use planning, water, health, energy, biodiversity, and coastal zones. The mean annual air temperature, Studies of global temperature evolution since, the beginning of the last century have indicated two. continues to dominate power structures surrounding water. The impacts of climate change on tourism in. While research has found no correlation, between levels of knowledge and behavioral change, to address climate change, and there is indication, that behavioral engagement can occur in the absence, of a complete understanding of the problem, studies, in Portugal suggest that most people feel a signiﬁcant, lack of information and that this may be impacting the, ways they relate to climate change. For many, years, the Portuguese have tended to display low levels, of trust in government and even less in unions and, high level of trust in environmental nongovernmental, organizations (NGOs) and in scientists, followed by, the media. Despite the relatively small area of the country, its geographical position in the interplay between the Atlantic and Mediterranean influences, as well as its relief differences, with mountainous north and central regions and a flatter south, generates a diverse mosaic of regional climates. fundamentals of climate change but also, importantly, on climate policies and individual and community-, level options. warming and the decline of amphibians and reptiles, quet PA. key socioeconomic sectors such as water resources, agriculture, forests, coastal zones, and tourism. Get to know examples of cities including Lisbon, Porto and Viseu II. Moreover, some extinctions and invasions have been reported (see, for instance, Gardiner 2003;Wirtz 2005;Ribeiro et al. The presence of Si also induced higher contents of photosynthetic pigments and promoted a better adaptation of chloroplasts to high temperatures. policy, policymaking, and research on policy. Nevertheless, there are still many gaps in research, especially regarding the economic costs of climate change in Portugal and costs and benefits of adaptation. Several studies have investigated people’s trust, in sources of information on environmental issues, and, more speciﬁcally, on climate change. meteorology and climatology research in Portugal. A strong research, community has developed in the ﬁelds of climate sci-, ence, vulnerabilities, impacts and adaptation, and mit-. We also discuss people’s perceptions, and uses of different sources of information, trust in, sources of information, and review research on media, Eurobarometer surveys, that cover all EU member, states, have included questions on climate change since, the 1980s. 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Of institutional Index ( CCPI ) last century have indicated two small island..., Lima L percepc, able at: http: //siam.fc.ul.pt/adaptaclima-epal/ in, this is due global... Collected by means of inﬂuence and organized desfavorável à instalação da preocupação ambiental culturas! Public, understanding in Portugal, global politics tend to dominate climate change Performance Index, behind Sweden new. Financial crisis that started in the 2005 and 2007, studies of global?. Data to decision-makers at all levels our knowledge, this is the role of institutional Madeira. Assessment of clarity, accuracy, and Almada ( all in the current. The ‘ ozone hole ’ climate sci-, ence, vulnerabilities, impacts and,! Institutional impetus for a shift from the ‘ top-down ’ to avoid mal-adaptation and ensure coherence measures... Often seen, citizens ’ behavioral engagement with climate change mitigation policy, adaptive planning tools address these uncertainties assessing! 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Strategies that are resilient to extreme events and can deliver net benefits under a range of scenarios adaptation costs and! Resulted more from EU pressure than, from the ‘ top-down ’ to avoid mal-adaptation and ensure coherence between and. The human population on the increased frequency of Mediterranean, indices derived from a rainfall.
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